(Upāya): “Means.” In Kashmir Shaivism, this term refers to the means to reveal our ultimate nature, Shiva consciousness. The upayas unify the fettered soul with the Supreme. Shaivism asserts that there are three upayas (ways) that lead to this state:

  1. Shambhavopaya or icchopaya, the means of Shiva or pure divine will. It is the path to reveal Shiva consciousness through Shiva (the Supreme Reality).
  2. Shaktopaya or jnanopaya, the means of energy or direct knowledge. It is the path to reveal Shiva consciousness through shakti (cosmic energy).
  3. Anavopaya or kriyopaya, the inferior means. It is the use of the mind, senses, and body for Self-revelation.