(Kriyā Yoga): A form of yoga briefly explained by Patanjali in the Yoga Sutras (2:1), before the presentation of Ashtanga Yoga. Kriya Yoga brings the purification of the subconscious mind through three means: tapas (asceticism), svadhyaya (study of sacred texts), and ishvarapranidhana (devotion to the Divine). In other yoga contexts, Kriya Yoga is an equivalent for Karma Yoga (the yoga of action done with detachment, awareness, and love). In modern times, Paramahamsa Yogananda offered a spiritual path called Kriya Yoga. Its teachings use bhakti (devotion), pranayama (breath control), and dhyana (meditation) in order to awaken kundalini shakti. He claims that the legendary master Babaji first revealed the teachings.