A Spanish mystic, priest, and friar who lived from 1542-1591. He is considered a major figure in the Catholic Reformation and the changes he and St. Teresa of Ávila advocated led to the founding of the Discalced (“barefoot”) Carmelites. He was well known for his prolific writings on the soul united with God in prayer, revealing profound mystical expressions, experiences, and insights. His commentaries rely on positive statements about God, first for their context—enabling the mind to be directed in attention and love toward God and no other—and second, for their verbal expression. This state of being directed toward God is typified when the mind moves toward a loving, non-conceptual knowledge of God, setting aside images and concepts.